Solar Panel Components: Every Tiny Detail You Need to Know Explained in Simple Terms

Solar panel setup

Solar Panel Parts: Introduction

Solar panel systems (PV systems) are a renewable energy technology that transforms the energy from the sun into electricity. Photovoltaics provides a reliable green energy solution.

Photovoltaics are also known as solar panels. The PV system is sustainable and requires low maintenance making itself a viable option for those who want to contribute to a greener environment along with other numerous advantages.
A solar panel consists of the following parts:

Solar Cells

Solar cells are responsible for the major work of converting sunlight directly into sunlight.

EVA Film

EVA (Ethylene-vinyl acetate) is a specially designed polymer and highly transparent plastic layer used to encapsulate the cells and hold them in position during manufacture.

EVA film protects solar cells from adverse weather conditions and prevents moisture or dirt from entering the solar panel.

Glass Sheet

The glass serves to protect solar cells that are open to weather, dust, rain and hail. Glass sheets also help resist mechanical loads and extreme temperatures.

Aluminum Frame

The aluminium frames protect the edges of the laminated section enclosing the cells.

Back Sheet

Black sheet protects from moisture and provides mechanical protection and electrical insulation as well.

Junction Box

A junction box is required to attach the cables to interconnect the panels securely. All junction boxes have bypass diodes keeping the flow of electricity uni-directional and preventing it from feeding back to the panels.

Fill Form to Get Solar Rooftop Installation Done at Your Doorstep:

Types of Solar Power Systems

There are three common types of solar power systems:

Grid-tied Systems

The home stays connected to the grid to use electricity when the solar panels are not producing enough energy.

Hybrid Systems

In this type of systems

  • The home remains connected to the grid
  • The solar panels are paired with batteries to store energy to use later on during a power outage

Off-grid Systems

No connection to the grid, and the home runs entirely on energy generated by solar panels.

The components of a grid-tied home solar PV system include:

  • Solar panels
  • Solar inverters
  • Solar racking
  • Net meter
  • Solar performance monitoring

Hybrid and off-grid solar system types require additional equipment.

  • Solar battery storage
  • Charge controller

Components of Solar Power Plant

Solar Panel

It is the heart of a solar power plant, also known as a Solar cell or photovoltaic cell. The most common types of solar energy receptors are:

    • Monocrystalline

Each solar PV cell is made up of a single silicon crystal. This solar panel is more efficient and expensive than polycrystalline solar panels.

    • Polycrystalline

Each PV cell is made of multiple silicon crystal fragments melded together during manufacturing.

How do you decide on one solar panel over another?

There are different selection criteria for solar panels – such as space, warranty, efficiency, technology type, cost etc.

NOTE: Output is king when you select a proper solar panel for residential installation.

Inverter/ UPS

The inverter converts the DC power supply to the AC power supply. Inverter and converter – also known as UPS, are used to convert the DC voltage to AC for AC-operated home appliances.

UPS also converts the AC and DC to charge the battery from a direct AC power supply.

Types of inverters:

    • Centralized or string inverter

It is less costly yet efficient.

    • Power optimizer

It is used to convert DC to AC & connected to the central inverter.

    • Microinverter

It operates smoothly and is reliable even with low sunshine, but it is expensive.

Solar Racking

Solar panels are not directly attached to the roof; panels are mounted on racking systems connected to the roof and angled for optimal sun exposure.

Net Meter

A unique electric meter known as a “Net Meter” is required to track how much electricity your solar panels produce vs how much electricity you use from the utility. Any unused solar electricity is sent to the grid.

Solar Performance Monitoring

The monitoring system verifies the performance of your PV system. It will show you how much electricity is being produced per hour or yearly.

Charge Controller

Also known as a charge regulator, it regulates the voltage and the current from the solar panels connected to batteries. The primary purpose of the charge controller is to prevent the overcharging of the batteries through the solar panels.

Multiple types of charge regulators are available in the market:

  1. Simple – 1 & 2 stage charge controller
  2. Pulse width modulation (PWM) – 3-stage charge controllers
  3. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT)


Batteries are used for backup charge storage. Different types of batteries are used in solar power systems for storage and backup operation at night when direct power from solar panels is unavailable.

Three types of solar batteries can be used in solar power systems:

  • Flooded lead-acid batteries
  • Sealed lead-acid batteries
  • Lithium batteries

Friendly Footprints provides quality solar panels and components and the best installation service on order.

Make a Call

Request a Callback

Enter your details in the form and we will call you back.

    We are the Best-In-Class Products & Solutions Provider

    Created to harness the natural resources and power the future!